Bismillahi ar-Rahman ar-Rahim

Links About Stereotyping of Arabs and Muslims


If you have the Adobe Acrobat Reader software, you can view the 2001 Muslim Civil Rights Report from the Council on American-Islamic Relations. This document is very large and will take awhile to load fully. This report details incidents of bias or discrimination against Muslims in America.

Here are some other links that discuss this problem:

Bias faced by ordinary Muslims

Arabs Say Airport Checks Single Them Out

Bay Area Muslims Struggle Against Bias

Canadian Muslims Seek Better Image

It's Not Easy Being an Arab-American

Muslims Still Face U.S. Stereotyping

Secret Evidence Prevents Basic Fairness

United States: Islam Growing, But Subject to Misperceptions


On prejudice against Muslims

Beyond Islamophobia

Report on Islamophobia

The Language of Islamophobia

The return of Arabophobia

Why the Rules of Racism are Different for Arabs


Responses by Muslims to Islamophobia

Media Defamation and Muslims' Indifference

When "Islamic Weirdness" Runs Amok


Stereotyping in the Media

100 Years of Anti-Arab and Anti-Muslim Stereotyping

Arab Bashing in Politics and Society

Arabs and the Media

Are You a Terrorist, Or Do You Just Play One on TV?

Has Hollywood Gone Soft on Muslims? Not Yet

Hollywood Now Plays Cowboys and Arabs

How Western Society Views Islam Today

Jack Shaheen Takes Aim at Arab Stereotypes in Media

Media Defamation Fosters Muslim- and Arab-American Exclusion

Media and Image-Building: Stereotyping of Arabs and Muslims

Negative Stereotyping Distorts Arabs' Image

Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Villifies a People

Stereotyping and Double Standards in 'Hollywood Islam'

The Media and Its Representation of Islam and Muslim Women

The Media's Islamic Blind Spot

The Other Anti-Semitism: The Image of Islam in American Pop Culture

The TV Arab

The Utility of Islamic Imagery in the West: An American Case Study

Turks on NBC's 'The West Wing': Head-Chopping Lunatics

Western Images of Islam

About specific movies that stereotype Arabs or Muslims:

Note: Also see my page on anti-hijab discrimination.


A Month of Backlash: September 11, 2001 to October 11, 2001

Sadly, in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, some people struck out blindly against any and all Arabs and Muslims that they met. For over a month, not a day went by that I didn't find at least one story in the news about this. Here is a selection of news reports:

Amnesty International Warns of Human Rights Abuses During War on Terrorism

Disabled Muslim Man Faces Airlines Harassment

Extra Police in UK to Protect Muslims

For 'Other' Americans, Hate Crimes are a New Kind of Terrorism

Hate Crime Reports Reach Record Level

Identity Mistaken, He Stays Unshaken

In Europe, Xenophobia Follows U.S. Terror

Investigation Detainees Report Abuse in Jails

Muslims: A Community Under Siege

Poll Finds Many Americans Want Security Restrictions on Arab-Americans

U.S. Courts Delay Trials of Muslims Fearing Biased Jurors

To view my full collection of backlash reports, see Archive of Backlash Stories.


Profile of a Community: Seattle, Washington

To get a feeling for how the backlash affected a single community, and how that community responded, here is a selection of the most notable reports from the Seattle area:

47 Arab Students Withdraw from Washington State University (September 20, 2001)

An Afghan Family in Kent (November 30, 2001)

Area Muslims Hear, See Hateful Words (September 13, 2001)

Area Muslims Say It's Time to Join Together, Speak Out (November 5, 2001)

Community Answers Targeting of Mosque (September 15, 2001)

Hundreds Assist Muslims with Watchful Eyes (October 13, 2001)

Innocent Muslim Doctor Tells of Arrest, Two-Week Ordeal (October 1, 2001)

Local Arabs' Bonds Transcend Culture, Politics (November 18, 2001)

Mideast Names, Looks Grounding Passengers: People refuse to fly with them (September 26, 2001)

Muslim Families Feel Reprecussions From Attacks (September 22, 2001)

Muslim Neighbors Reach Out for Ramadan (November 11, 2001)

Muslim and American, by Jafar Siddiqui (September 14, 2001)

Neighbor Puts out Arson Fire at Local Mosque (November 3, 2001)

Racial Profiling Means Arab-Americans are Newly Uncomfortable Faces in the Crowd (November 2, 2001)

Ramadan: A Time of Prayer - and Worry (November 15, 2001)

Sikh Man Beaten at His Seatac Motel After Being Mistaken for a Muslim (October 20, 2001)

University of Washington Brings Islam Home to Seattle with Lecture Series (October 6, 2001)

Violence Against Muslims Continues (September 18, 2001)

To view my full collection of Seattle reports, see Archive of Seattle News Reports.


Personal Reports by Muslims and Arab-Americans

Here are some appeals by Muslims and Arab-Americans that appeared in the news. These are provided as a supplement:

"Achtung Muslims"

A Plea for Tolerance

A Week of Complex Emotions

All the Reasons I am Angry at the Terrorists

Americans Are Not the Only Victims

An Afghani-American's Take on the Mess We're In

Arab-Americans and Muslims are Defended

Arab-Americans and Muslims are Victims Too

From the Ashes, Islam Emerges in a New Light

How the Arab Civilization Has Changed Your Life

I Am Hiding from Backlash

I'm Not the Enemy

If You Hate Me, Disagree With My Ideas, Not My Headscarf

It's Not Easy Being an Arab-American

Muslims in America: Guilty until Proven Innocent

New Outlook

Racial Profiling: Much More Than an Imposition

Seeing Ourselves

Terrorism's Tragic Fallout Leaves Canadian Muslims Feeling Guilty-by-Association

The Day the FBI Visited Me

The Double-Bind of Americans of Middle Eastern Heritage

The New York Catastrophe: A Personal Experience

This Fireball of Fear and Loathing

See also: Muslim Converts Try to Dispel Myths


Responses to the Backlash

American and Other Western Leaders

One of the most heartening signs for me was how many of our political leaders spoke out against the backlash, and how strongly they did so. I was especially impressed with President Bush. I have no doubt that his words, and those of others cited here, prevented much worse from happening. Unfortunately, President Bush did not follow this up once the immediate crisis had ended, but let's give credit where credit is due. Here is a selection of reports:

Attorney General Ashcroft Meets with Muslim, Arab Leaders

British Minister Offers Support to Muslims

Bush Calls for End to Violence Against U.S. Muslims

Bush Calls for Religious Tolerance

Bush Condemns Revenge Attacks in U.S.

Bush Meets With Muslim Leaders in D.C. Mosque

Bush Says Terrorists Should Be Identified by Their Country, Not Islam

Bush Warns Against Arab-American Backlash

Bush to Target Anti-Muslim Acts

Bush, Ashcroft Condemn Anti-Muslim Hysteria

Green Party of the U.S. Denounces the Backlash

Michigan Governor John Engler Meets Arab-Americans

New Jersey Political Candidates Decry Backlash

Prince Charles Visits Mosque

Rep. Dennis Kucinich Statement On Tolerance and Unity

Representative David Bonior of Michigan Denounces 'Hateful Prejudice' Against Muslims and Arabs

Representative Jim Moran of Virginia Condemns Backlash Against Muslims and Arabs (PDF)

Representative Mike Pence of Indiana Condemns Backlash Against Muslims and Arabs (PDF)

Scottish Political Leader Calls for Tolerance for Muslims

Scottish Political Leader Warns Against Backlash

Senate and Congress Condemn Discrimination Against Muslims and Arabs

Statement From Assistant Attorney General Regarding Treatment Of Arab, Muslim Americans Or Americans Of South Asian Descent

Text of Bush's Speech at Islamic Center

UK Prime Minister Tony Blair Supports Muslims

UK Prime Minister Tony Blair to Meet Muslim Leaders

Washington Governor Gary Locke Reassures Muslims

Welsh Leader Supports Muslims



In addition to the political leaders cited above, many journalists made use of the media to spread a message of tolerance, and this is also much appreciated. Here are some articles:

'Diaperhead' Insult from Congressman Doesn't Help U.S.

'Islamo-Fascism' - The New Bogeyman

A Media Day of Infamy

Affronts to Arabs Show Our Ignorance

Americans Vs. Americans

Another Kind of War: Bush takes a new approach with support of Muslims

Anti-Islam Bigotry Runs Deep

Arab Appearance Isn't a Crime

Arab-Americans Are a Precious and Valuable Resource in These Times

Attacks on Muslims are Intolerable

Don't Form a Lynch Mob to Fight Terrorism

Equal Right to Fear

Ethnic Profiling Won't Preserve Our Way Of Life

Every Arab-American isn't a suspect

Far-Flung Net Ensnares Innocent With the Guilty

Fight Against Ethnic Hatred

Have a Hunt, Not a Witchhunt, for Terrorists

In-Flight Racism

Islam Finds Converts in Hawaii Since Sept 11

Islam Hijacked by Terror

Islam: Faith Under Fire

Islamophobia Undermines President Bush's War Effort

Look Who's in Favor of Racial Profiling Now

Media Distorts Meaning of Islamic Faith

On Racial Profiling: When Special Scrutiny Clashes with Our Sense of Civility

Profiling for Terrorists Not the Answer

Racial Profiling: Judging Others by Their Covers

Racism and Hate Hide Behind Flag Waving

Racism in Reporting, Jingoism as Foreign Policy

Rattling the Sabers of Bigotry

Respect for All Americans

Safeguarding Civil Liberties for Muslims


Scribes of the New Racism

Support Americans of All Faiths

Terrorists Tempt Us To Fear, Stereotype Each Other

The Fear and Pain of Muslim Friends

The Fog of Prejudice

The Pilot Who Lost His Cool

The Right to be British: Why should people be expected to prove their allegiance simply because they are Muslims?

The True, Peaceful Face of Islam

The Witch Hunt

We Must Not Single out Arab-Americans

Why Middle Eastern Immigrants are Worried

You Don't Defend Freedom by Casting it Aside


Ordinary Americans

Perhaps the most moving of all was support from ordinary Americans, out of the kindness of their hearts. This is truly the best of America.

Ads battle backlash Arab Americans face

Broad Coalition Urges Respect for Civil Liberties Despite War Footing

Catholic Organization the Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Center Shows Support for Muslims (PDF)

Catholic, Muslim Girls Find a Lot to Share

Doctor Grows Beard to Show Support for Muslims

Expressions of Support Surprising to Muslims

Faith Groups Stand Together

For Muslims, Benevolence is Prevailing over Backlash

Hate Crimes Called Terrorism: Religious leaders urge tolerance

Headteacher Reassures Muslim Pupils

Muslims Receive Support from Americans Denouncing Racist Attacks

Muslims Witness Support Amid Anger

Nation Quietly Fights Intolerance

New York Teachers Receive Guide to Combat Bigotry

Police Pledge to Protect Muslim Community

Show of Solidarity with Fort Worth's Muslims

Stand Beside Her: Volunteers Help Protect Muslim Women


Racial Profiling and Traveling Employees - Tips for Arab Americans and Those Who Accompany Them (article continues onto additional pages; follow links at bottom)

What Employers Need to Do in This Time of National Outrage


See My Condemnation of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Some Quranic Verses on Jihad, What Islam Really Says about Killing the Innocent, and Muslims Condemn Terrorism to learn why Islam is not to blame.

See Western Journalists on the Terrorist Attacks for some interesting perspectives on possible causes of, and solutions to, terrorism.